Rail environment

Upgrades to Crossings

In New Zealand there are around 2700 level crossings – 1300 of these are on public roads and the remaining 1400 crossings are on private land. 

The upgrade and maintenance of level crossings on private land are usually the responsibilities of the landowner.

Of the public road level crossings around 21 per cent are protected by flashing lights and bells and barrier arms.  32 per cent have flashing lights and bells and the remaining crossings (around 47 per cent) have Give Way or Stop signs.At all railway level crossings, regardless of the signage and signals in place, vehicles and pedestrians must give way to trains at all times.

Types of protection

Upgrading protection at a crossing might mean installing flashing lights and bells with "Stop" or "Give Way" signs or it may mean installing barrier arms at a crossing that already has lights and bells.

Other changes can be made to crossings to improve safety, such as increased signage, signs in advance of the crossing or road alignment changes.   

Upgrading public crossings is usually a collaborative effort involving KiwiRail and NZ Transport Agency (and the local roading authority if the crossing is on a local (Council) road).

Objective criteria

To ensure fairness, a priority list is used to determine which level crossings will be upgraded first. The Australian Level Crossing Assessment Model (ALCAM) is used to evaluate the risk at each crossing. Factors considered include:

  • train, pedestrian and traffic characteristics
  • engineering experience (both rail and road)
  • local knowledge of driver or pedestrian behaviour
  • social and economic assessments and
  • standards and international best practice.
Crossings identified by ALCAM as high risk, or requiring improvement under KiwiRail's engineering guidelines, are upgraded first.Crossing upgrades are sometimes necessary because local roading projects, or a new public development may result in increases in road or rail traffic over a level crossing. 

Any new crossings will require an ALCAM evaluation to assess any new risks.

In 2017, KiwiRail adopted a new, holistic system which modifies the ALCAM risk score by taking into account other external safety factors.  These include:

  • crash and incident data
  • personal and collective road risk
  • vehicle delay–short stacking, and
  • the opinion of locomotive engineers (train drivers).
The new system is used to develop risk scores for both private and public road and pedestrian level crossings.

Costs of upgrades

Typical costs of installing automatic alarm systems for level crossings are:

  • Flashing lights and bell alarms = $120,000 + GST
  • Half arm barriers plus flashing light and bell alarms = $200,000 + GST  
  • Road overbridge to replace level crossing = $5 million or more
The cost of installing alarms may be significantly higher where there are nearby road intersections or where more than one railway track needs to be crossed.

Who pays for upgrades

The costs of installing and maintaining alarm systems at level crossings are generally shared 50:50 between KiwiRail and NZ Transport Agency or the relevant Road Controlling Authority (usually the local Council).

KiwiRail does not contribute towards funding of upgrades that become necessary because of roading projects or new developments outside the rail network.

KiwiRail Capital Works Upgrade Programme

KiwiRail is funded to upgrade around eight crossings per year.  Other upgrades occur through separately funded projects.

Crossings upgraded by KiwiRail in the 2016 and 2017 financial years included:

  • Aylesbury Road, Rolleston (half arm barriers)
  • SH49, Tangiwai (half arm barriers)
  • Northpark Road, Ashburton (half arm barriers)
  • Morningside Drive, Auckland (additional flashing lights for pedestrians)
  • SH69, Oweka (half arm barriers)
  • Collins Avenue, Tawa (voice message system, another train approaching)
  • Caverhill Road, Whakatane (flashing lights and bells)
  • Ferry Road, Picton (half arm barriers)
  • Lethbridge Street, Feilding (half arm barriers)
  • Roberts Line, Palmerston North (half arm barriers)
  • Longlands Road, Hastings (half arm barriers)
  • Stoney Creek Road, Palmerston North (half arm barriers)
  • SH1, Chertsey (half arm barriers)
  • SH2, Tahoraiti Road (half arm barriers)
  • SH1, Winchester (half arm barriers)
  • SH26, Piako Road (half arm barriers)

Your stories
Latest news

Near misses still take toll at level crossings

Monday, August 12, 2019

Close calls at level crossings are taking a huge toll on train drivers and those who narrowly miss death.  Read more

Privacy policy © Copyright 2014 trackSAFE